Task 16: Colors and Transparency  

Contents

Computers and Color
The _RGB32 and _RGB Statements
The _SETALPHA Statement
The _CLEARCOLOR Statement
The _RGBA32 and _RGBA Statements
Retrieving Color Information - The POINT Statement
The _RED32, _GREEN32, and _BLUE32 Statements
A Colorful Example - Hocus Pocus
Your Turn
Command Reference



Computers and Color


In order to understand how color is used in a computer we must first take a short journey through the history of computers and color. The very earliest computer screens were nothing more than oscilloscopes that traced a beam of light onto a phosphor coating within an electron tube. The tracing was so fast however that a human's eye could not see it and due to the phosphor coating glowing for a short time afterward coupled with persistence of vision images and text could be drawn onto the tube. Looking back at the very earliest computer screens you'll notice that they are round because of their oscilloscope roots.

These early screens offered a color depth of 1 bit. Since a single bit can only hold two values, 0 and 1, the screen was either off at certain locations (0) or on at other locations (1). As electron tubes progressed over the years their round shape gave way to more rectangular shapes creating the common Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) computer screens from the 1970s to early 2000s. The earliest form of color for these CRT screens was known as monochrome.

Monochrome screens typically displayed white, green, or orange text and graphics. They could only produce one color, the same as the old oscilloscope tubes, so they offered a color depth of 1 bit. They could also address each individual pixel on the screen. To turn on a pixel a programmer would place a 1 at the pixel's address. To turn the pixel off a 0 would be placed at the pixel's address. It was a crude form of color but was very popular for applications that did not need actual colors, such as cash register terminals and word processing stations. By the late 70's computers capable of creating actual colors began to appear. Instead of going over each and every computer at the time we'll focus on the progression of the IBM PC and its use of color.

The first color video graphics cards available were known as CGA (Color Graphics Adapter). They were capable of up to 16 colors in text mode and 4 colors in graphics mode. CGA did this by mixing Red, Green, and Blue (RGB) values together to achieve the desired color. CGA has a color depth of 4 bits per pixel, 1 bit for red, 1 bit for green, 1 bit for blue, and 1 bit for intensity.  This can be represented as a binary value of 4 bits:


INTENSITY  RED  GREEN  BLUE
    1       1     1     1   = WHITE     (15) (by mixing all colors and making intense)
    0       1     0     1   = MAGENTA   (5)  (by mixing red and blue)
    1       1     0     0   = LIGHT RED (12) (red bit on with intensity)
    0       0     1     1   = CYAN      (3)  (by mixing blue and green)

The following example program shows what was available when CGA was the only video adapter available for the PC. Save the code as CGADemo.BAS when finished.




Figure 1 - The CGA Text Mode (SCREEN 0)


Figure 2 - The CGA Graphics Mode (SCREEN 1)

Later video adapters followed to include the Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) which was capable of truly being able to display 16 colors at a time in graphics mode for a true color depth of 4 bits. The introduction of the Video Graphics Array (VGA) adapter took this even further being able to display up to 256 colors at a time for a color depth of 8 bits. The following example program displays the VGA 256 default color palette. Save the code as VGADemo.BAS when complete.




Figure 3 - VGA 256 Default Color Palette

Later advancements in video technology had their unique names such as SVGA and XGA but they all followed the same RGB ordering of bits as CGA by simply adding more bits available to the red, green, and blue color components. Today 32bit color is the norm offering 8 bits of red, 8 bits of green, 8 bits of blue, and 8 bits for an alpha transparency channel that can all be represented as a 32bit binary string of 0s and 1s.

 TRANSPARENCY          RED             GREEN            BLUE
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 = WHITE
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 = MAGENTA
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = LIGHT RED
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 = CYAN


There are 256 levels (8 bits) of each color available in 32bit color depth (0 through 255). This is why there are 16.7 million different variations of color available. 256 times 256 times 256 = 16,777,216 or 24 bits = 224 = 16,777,216. The final 8 bits are used for transparency allowing a color to be completely clear (0 or 00000000) to fully opaque (255 or 11111111). There are in fact so many colors in the 32bit color depth palette that they can't all be displayed on a 1920x1080 wide screen monitor. There's only 2,073,600 pixels on the monitor, not nearly enough for 16 million+ unique colors!

32bit colors in QB64 are always returned or set as an unsigned long integer. Remember that unsigned long integers fall within the range of 0 to 4,294,967,295 (close to 4.3 billion) which is the same as 232. By default the transparency bits are always set to 1 meaning that the color black in binary is 11111111000000000000000000000000 or 4,278,190,080 all the way to white 11111111111111111111111111111111 or 4,294,967,295. This is why an unsigned long value needs to be used to store colors. Many times new programmers will mistake the value of 0 for black when in fact 0 is transparent black and wonder why black did not show up where they thought it should.



The _RGB32 and _RGB Statements


The _RGB32 statement gives the programmer an easy way of selecting a color from the 16.7 million available. A value of 0 through 255 needs to be supplied for each of the red, green, and blue components of the color.

MyColor~& = _RGB32(red%, green%, blue%)

Note: _RGB32 has recently gained the ability to work with transparency as well. This will be explained in the _RGBA32 section below.

Colors are achieved by mixing varying degrees of red, green, and blue together to form new colors. You may remember doing this in grade school when you learned that mixing blue and yellow crayons magically created green or mixing red and blue together made purple. Because there are so many colors to choose from many programs offer what's called a color wheel or color picker as seen in Figure 4 below.



Figure 4 - Examples of a Color Picker and Color Wheel

The QB64 IDE will also help you choose colors with its own version of a color picker. When you start typing in the statement _RGB32( a prompt appears allowing you to press SHIFT-ENTER to select a color through the use of slider bars as seen in Figure 5 below.


Figure 5 - The IDE RGB Color Mixer

The _RGB32 statement only sets three of the four values available in a 32bit color, the red, green, and blue values. Other statements exist to manipulate the alpha transparency channel which will be discussed in a bit. Therefore, _RGB32 will always give you a color that is opaque or solid.

The _RGB statement handles colors differently depending on the bit depth of the image or screen it is working with. If an image has a 32bit color depth _RGB will behave exactly the same as _RGB32 and return a true 32bit color value. However, if the image being worked on has an 8bit color depth, or 256 colors, _RGB will return a value from 0 to 255 that as closely approximates the 32bit color as possible. Here is an example program that shows that difference in real time. Save the example code as ColorPick.BAS when finished.





Figure 6 - Playing With Colors

As the example program shows when in 32bit color mode the colors smoothly change as the values for red, green, and blue are changed. However, when you switch to 8bit color mode the color in the circle somewhat abruptly changes as the values are increased and decreased.

Many locations on the Internet have common HTML color names that are used when creating web sites. Here the w3schools.com website has a nice listing of them. At RapidTables.com is a listing of the colors along with an RGB color picker you can use. However, they list the colors in a rather peculiar way. For instance, the first few colors listed at w3schools.com are:


AliceBlue    - #F0F8FF   This is AliceBlue
AntiqueWhite - #FAEBD7   This is AntiqueWhite
Aqua         - #00FFFF   This is Aqua
Aquamarine   - #7FFFD4   This is Aquamarine


The curious string of letters and numbers after the pound sign (#) are known as hexadecimal numbers. If you look back at Figure 4 the color picker offers a box in the lower right hand corner to enter a "hex" value. Most color pickers will also show you the R, G, and B values from 0 to 255 when you type in a hexadecimal number in the field. Even the previous example program displays the hexadecimal numbers.

Hexadecimal is another counting system that is used by computers. It's used as a method of shorthand for binary values. Instead of remembering that the value of 65,535 = 1111111111111111 one can simply use the hexadecimal value of FFFF to represent that.

It's not a requirement that you understand how to count in hexadecimal to be a game programmer. Somewhere down the line though you are going to encounter code that uses it and be at a disadvantage compared to other coders. QB64 can even convert from decimal to hexadecimal and back for you with built in commands.

Hexadecimal is a BASE16 counting system that uses the number 0 through 9 and then A through F. Since there are not 16 different symbols for numbers in the common BASE10 counting system the letters A through F are needed to represent the numbers 10 through 15. Each place holder in the BASE16 counting system is 16 times greater than the one to the right. This is no different than decimal being 10 times greater and binary being 2 times greater. Each hexadecimal digit represents a binary nibble, or 4 bits. Figure 7 below is a conversion chart.



Figure 7 - Decimal to Binary to Hexadecimal Conversion Chart

Let's take the color BurntOrange for example. When you visit a color picker web site it will list this color as #CC6600. This hexadecimal number equates to the RGB values of (204, 102, 0). If you put those three decimal numbers into _RGB32 you will get the burnt orange color. Here's how the conversion looks.

|      204      |      102      |       0       |decimal RGB
|1 1 0 0|1 1 0 0|0 1 1 0|0 1 1 0|0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0|binary 24bits
|   C   |   C   |   6   |   6   |   0   |   0   |hexadecimal
       RED            GREEN            BLUE


Looking at the chart in Figure 7 we see that "C" in hex equates to 1100 in binary. Therefore CC converts to 11001100 and that number in binary equals 204 in decimal. Likewise "6" in hex is 0110 so 66  converts to 01100110 and that number in binary equals 102 in decimal.

All programming languages understand and can use hexadecimal values. In fact, some languages such as Assembler rely heavily on their use. In order to tell QB64 that a number is being presented in hexadecimal form you must precede it with &H (an ampersand and then a capital H). For example, the hexadecimal number:

&HFF

is the same as presenting the number 255 in decimal. ( FF = 11111111 = 255). You can use these hexadecimal values along with the _RGB and _RGB32 statements:

BurntOrange~& = _RGB32(&HCC, &H66, &H00) ' the color burnt orange



The Alpha Channel and Transparency


The _LOADIMAGE statement supports PNG images that contain transparent layers. If the PNG image you are loading contains any transparency, or alpha channel, layer information it will be maintained when loaded. You can create transparent PNG images by using any graphics program that supports alpha channel features. Transparent, or alpha channel, information is simply a predefined color, or colors, that has been marked as having transparency. This is done by setting the highest 8 bits to something other than 255 or 11111111. The following example program shows this difference. Two bee images are loaded and displayed on the screen. Both bee images have a bright magenta background (255, 0, 255) however the image file tbee0.PNG had the bright magenta color set to be fully transparent by my graphics program. Type the following program in to see the difference.




Figure 8 - Non-Transparent Image Left, Transparent Image Right

The bee on the left, bee0.PNG, has no alpha channel changes to any of the colors so the bright magenta color is seen surrounding the image. The bee on the right, tbee0.PNG, has had the bright magenta alpha channel bits set to 0 making the color completely transparent and allowing the sky image behind to be seen. The bright magenta color is still there in the bee on the right but _PUTIMAGE uses the alpha channel information to allow whatever is underneath to come through.


The _SETALPHA Statement


QB64's _SETALPHA statement can be used to manipulate the alpha channel of any color, or range of colors,  within an image to produce transparency. Using the same code let's make the first bee transparent as well by using the _SETALPHA statement. Once you make the changes as seen in line 9 below save the code as SetalphaDemo.BAS.





Figure 9 - Both Bees Now Have a Transparent Color

The syntax for the _SETALPHA statement is:

_SETALPHA alpha%, color1~& TO color2~&, ImageHandle&

alpha% is the amount of transparency desired from 0 (fully transparent) to 255 (fully opaque or solid). color1~& is the starting color to apply the alpha channel changes to. color2~& is an optional second ending color allowing for a range of colors to have the alpha channel set. ImageHandle& is the image to have the alpha channel changes applied to.

In our example program above _SETALPHA was used to affect a single color but could have been used to affect the entire range of magenta by making this change:

_SETALPHA 0, _RGB32(255, 0, 1) TO _RGB32(255, 0, 255) ' all magenta transparent

The _SETALPHA statement is crazy powerful and takes some playing with to master. If all you need to do is set one color to transparent as we did in the example the _CLEARCOLOR statement is more often used.



The _CLEARCOLOR Statement


The _CLEARCOLOR statement is used to set a specific color to completely transparent. Once again let's modify the example code.



This time instead of using the _SETALPHA statement in line 9 we replaced it with the _CLEARCOLOR statement. The code produces the same output screen as previously seen in Figure 9 above however this time the only supplied parameters needed are the color and image to set.

_CLEARCOLOR color~&, ImageHandle&

_CLEARCOLOR will always set the alpha channel value of color~& to 0 making it completely transparent. To remove the affects of using _CLEARCOLOR on an image the following is used:

_CLEARCOLOR _NONE, ImageHandle&

This effectively removes all transparency previously set with the _CLEARCOLOR statement. The _CLEARCOLOR statement can also be used a function to retrieve the current transparent color of an image.

Transparent~& = _CLEARCOLOR(ImageHandle&) ' get transparent color of image



The _RGBA32 and _RGBA Statements


The _RGBA32 and _RGBA statements operate the same as _RGB32 and _RGB with the addition of being able to set the alpha transparency level at the same time. Instead of three parameters now four will be needed:

ColorValue~& = _RGBA32(red%, green%, blue%, alpha%)

The addition of an alpha% parameter allows the color to be created with a predetermined alpha level set.

One of the reasons I like working with QB64 is because of the consistent active development that is done to it. While writing this task it was brought to my attention that the _RGB32 statement gained the ability to optionally work with the alpha channel rendering the need for _RGBA32 obsolete. _RGBA32 is still maintained for compatibility reasons however.

_RGB32 can now accept optional alpha channel information:

MyColor~& = _RGB32(red%, green%, blue%, alpha%)



Retrieving Color Information - The POINT Statement


The POINT statement can be used to retrieve the color of an image at any x,y coordinate location. Type the following example code in to see the POINT statement in action. Save the code as PointDemo.BAS when finished.



As you move the mouse pointer over the screen the color at the mouse pointer is retrieved by the POINT statement in line 15 and saved to an unsigned long integer variable.  The POINT statement only needs to know the x,y coordinate of the image's color to retrieve it.

GetColor~& = POINT(x%, y%)



The _RED32, _GREEN32, and _BLUE32 Statements


In the previous example the red, green, and blue components of the color retrieved by POINT were also identified. The _RED32 statement will return a value from 0 to 255 indicating the amount of red in a color. The _GREEN32 statement will return a value between 0 and 255 indicating the amount of green in a color. Finally the _BLUE32 statement will return a value from 0 to 255 indicating the amount of blue in a color.

Red% = _RED32(color~&) '     return just the red component
Green% = _GREEN32(color~&) ' return just the green component
Blue% = _BLUE32(color~&) '   return just the blue component

There are also corresponding _RED, _GREEN, and _BLUE statements for working with 256 color images. These three statements will return the palette index of an 8bit (256) color.



A Colorful Example - Hocus Pocus


It's time to put all this colorful code into action. The following program is saved in your .\tutorial\task16\ directory as HocusPocus.BAS and utilizes all of the statements up to this point. Go ahead and load HocusPocus.BAS into your IDE and execute it now. Move the mouse around on the screen to make the magic happen.




Figure 10 - Hocus Pocus!

This program is an example of particle effects. The math involved with creating a program like this must be incredible right? Nope, there is no math involved other than resizing a _PUTIMAGE window, incrementing, and decrementing a few variables here and there.

Each of the colorful blooms created is actually an individual square image that contains an ever decreasing in size transparency layer using _PUTIMAGE's two coordinate placement system. This gives each square the illusion of fading out. The bloom itself is created using the CIRCLE statement contained in a loop to draw ever smaller circles on each square of slightly varying color that eventually leads to bright white. This gives them the appearance of glowing multicolored lights. THERE IS NO CODE KUNG FU going on here, just concepts from this task used to create an interesting effect.




Here at the beginning of the code some constants are set up to allow the look and the feel of the program to be changed easily. Lines 13 through 20 can all have their values changed that modify the size of the window, the bloom amounts, sizes, speeds, and to add a bounce to them if desired.

For fun set BOUNCE = TRUE and MAXLIFE = 128. The blooms will bounce a few times.

In lines 22 through 33 a TYPE definition is created that defines a single bloom. This TYPE definition is then used to create a dynamic array in line 35. Each time a new bloom is added the dynamic array is increased in size to hold it. We now have a construct that can hold many different objects at once that can all be manipulated easily by cycling through the array.




Lines 47 through 59 prepare the program by creating the graphics screen, starting the sound, hiding, and then moving the mouse to the middle of the window. The first index in the array is told it has no object (line 58) and can be used to store the first object created.



In the main program loop the mouse is being watched for any movement. If the variables x% and y% have changed, as indicated by their previous values oldx% and oldy%, then a FOR...NEXT loop is initiated in line 66 that counts to BLOOMAMOUNT. The subroutine HOCUS initiates a new bloom object at the current mouse position. Depending on the value of the constant BLOOMAMOUNT this may be done more than once.

The POCUS subroutine in line 73 scans through the array for any active blooms and updates their position and size. It then displays each active bloom to the screen.




At the beginning of the HOCUS subroutine two variables, hx% and hy% are defined as parameters to be passed into the HOCUS subroutine. These values are used as the x,y coordinate pair location to create a new bloom. The Abra() dynamic array is SHARED to allow access to its contents and finally local variables are declared that will be needed inside of the HOCUS subroutine.



Lines 111 through 137 are used for array maintenance. Lines 114 through 127 are used to find an available index for the bloom about to be created. Line 114 sets up a loop that will loop as many times as there are indexes in the array. If the variable .lifespan has reached 0 in line 115 that means the bloom contained at this index has run its course. Lines 116 through 119 mark this index as empty and removes the dead bloom image from memory. Lines 120 through 122 check to see if a free index has already been chosen and if not the newly available index is chosen. In lines 123 through 125 a variable named CleanUp% is set to FALSE if any index still has an active bloom contained in it.

Lines 128 through 131 resets the dynamic array since there are no active blooms contained anywhere in the array. This assures that size of the array does not get too large. When the user stops moving the mouse around, and all color blooms have run their course, the array is reset freeing the used memory. If however there are active blooms in the array lines 133 through 136 checks to see if one of the indexes in the array were free. If line 133 sees that Index% is still the value of 0 then a free index was not found and line 134 needs to increase the dynamic array in size by 1. That newly created index value is now going to be used for the new bloom to be created.




Lines 138 through 154 sets up the variables with values needed to create a bloom. Line 146 creates the image that will hold the bloom. When new images are created by default their color is (0, 0, 0, 0) meaning that they are transparent black. Many times, especially after _NEWIMAGE is used to create a SCREEN the CLS command is used to remove the transparent layer effectively changing the image's color to (0, 0, 0, 255). This will not be done here as we'll use that default transparency to our advantage later.

Lines 147 through 149 creates the three random color components of the bloom color. Lines 150 through 152 set a color step value that will be used to change the blooms color as it gets smaller. Finally in line 154 an alpha transparency step value is also set used to make the bloom less transparent as it gets smaller.




Lines 155 through 176 is where the actual bloom gets created. First the current destination must be saved in line 155 since we are going to change the destination to the newly created image in line 156. In line 157 a counter is set up as the same size as the bloom. A loop is then set up in line 158 that will continue to loop until the value of Count% becomes 0. Count% is the radius value of each circle to be drawn within the bloom image.

Line 162 draws a circle at the center of the image using a radius value contained in Count%. The color used is defined by the current Red%, Green%, and Blue% component color variables.

Line 167 paints the circle starting at the center of the image using the same color as the previously drawn circle.

Line 169 then sets the alpha transparency of that color based on the value contained in Alpha%.

Lines 170 through 172 then increase the red, green, and blue color components in effect getting ever closer to white as the loop progresses.


Line 173 increases the Alpha% value making each subsequent circle to be drawn less transparent. As the bloom's rings created by the CIRCLE statement get ever smaller they become less transparent until the final circle in white in the center is completely opaque. A glowing orb is formed!

Line 174 decreases the size of the next circle and the loop starts again until finally Count% has reached a radius of 0.

When the loop is complete the original destination is restored in line 176. Figure 11 below shows the progression of the bloom as it is formed.



Figure 11 - The Creation of a Bloom



The POCUS subroutine is used to update and display all active blooms within the Abra() array. Line 194 retrieves the largest index value contained within the array. A loop is then set up which will continue looping until the value of c% becomes 0.

Line 196 checks to see if the bloom is still active. If it is line 197 gets the current size of the bloom.

Line 198 then uses this size to go from from a center point outward to that size using _PUTIMAGE. This creates a square region to squeeze the bloom image into. As the lifespan of the bloom progresses this size gets smaller squeezing the image into a smaller and smaller square. This effectively makes the bloom appear to be fading out as time goes on.

In lines 199 through 202 the lifespan of the bloom is decreased, the size of the bloom is decreased, and the x and y location of the bloom is updated.

In lines 203 through 209 then bloom is checked to see if it left the bottom of the screen. If it has and BOUNCE is TRUE then the vertical velocity is simply reversed to give the bloom a bouncing effect. If BOUNCE is set to FALSE then the bloom is simply killed off by setting its .lifespan to 0 as it is no longer needed.

Lines 210 and 211 update the x and y speed vectors of the bloom. The horizontal (x) speed is reduced by 10% and the vertical (y) speed is increased which simulates a gravity effect on the bloom.

Line 213 moves onto the next array index to update the bloom located there.

As you can see the effect is rather simple to achieve: create a square image, draw circles with varying color and transparency onto that image, squeeze that square into an ever increasingly smaller area for a set length of time. Rinse and repeat.



Your Turn









Command Reference


New commands introduced in this task:

_RGB32
_RGB
&H
_SETALPHA
_CLEARCOLOR
_RGBA32
_RGBA
POINT
_RED32
_GREEN32
_BLUE32
_RED
_GREEN
_BLUE


New concepts introduced in this task:

Oscilloscope
Persistence of Vision
Color Depth
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
Monochrome
Color Graphics Adapter (CGA)
RGB
Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA)
Video Graphics Array (VGA)
SVGA
XGA
Alpha Transparency
HTML
Hexadecimal
Assembler




Commands learned in Task 15:

_NEWIMAGE
_LOADIMAGE
_WIDTH
_HEIGHT
_PUTIMAGE
_DEST
_SOURCE
_FREEIMAGE
_COPYIMAGE
_SCREENIMAGE


Concepts learned in Task 15:

BMP
JPG (JPEG)
PNG
GIF
PSD
PIC
PNM
TGA
Lossless Compression
Color Depth
Sprite
Sprite Sheet




Commands learned in Task 14:

BEEP
SOUND
PLAY
_SNDOPEN
_SNDPLAY
_SNDPLAYCOPY
_SNDLOOP
_SNDPLAYFILE
_SNDPLAYING
_SNDSTOP
_SNDVOL
_SNDPAUSE
_SNDPAUSED
_SNDLIMIT
_SNDLEN
_SNDSETPOS
_SNDGETPOS
_SNDCLOSE


Concepts learned in Task 14:

FM Synthesis
MIDI
WAV
OGG
MP3




Commands learned in Task 13:

_DIREXISTS
_FILEEXISTS
CHDIR
MKDIR
RMDIR
KILL
NAME...AS
OPEN
INPUT (file statement)
OUTPUT
APPEND
BINARY
RANDOM
PRINT (file statement)
WRITE (file statement)
LINE INPUT (file statement)
FREEFILE
LOF


Concepts learned in Task 13:

Sequential File
Comma Separated Value File (CSV)
Records
Database




Commands learned in Task 12:

AND
OR
XOR
NOT
\ (Integer Division)
MOD
INT()
CINT()
CLNG()
CSNG()
CDBL()
_ROUND()
FIX()
ABS()
SGN()
SIN()
COS()
TAN()
ATN()
READ
DATA


Concepts learned in Task 12:

numbering system
transistor
binary
binary numbering system
George Boole
Boolean logic
logic gate
bitwise math
flags
Banker's Rounding
sine
radian
cosine
tangent
arctangent



Commands learned in Task 11:

UCASE$()
LCASE$()
LTRIM$()
RTRIM$()
_TRIM$()
INSTR()
STR$()
DATE$
LEFT$()
RIGHT$()
MID$()
ASC()
STRING$()
SPACE$()
SWAP


Concepts learned in Task 11:

parse



Commands learned in Task 10:

DIM
TYPE
END TYPE
AS
REDIM
_PRESERVE
UBOUND
LBOUND
OPTION BASE


Concepts learned in Task 10:

array
one dimensional array
element
index
two dimensional array
three dimensional array
Dynamic Array
Static Array




Commands learned in Task 9:

LINE INPUT
INKEY$
CHR$()
_KEYDOWN
_KEYHIT
_MOUSEX
_MOUSEY
_MOUSEINPUT
_MOUSEHIDE
_MOUSESHOW
_MOUSEMOVE
_MOUSEBUTTON


Concepts learned in Task 9:

BIOS
ASCII
buffer
CMOS
ROM
ASCII chart



Commands learned in Task 8:

SUB
END SUB
FUNCTION
END FUNCTION
SHARED

Concepts learned in Task 8:

subroutine
function
local variables
global variables
Pythagorean Theorem



Commands learned in Task 7:

SCREEN
LINE
CIRCLE
PAINT
PSET
_RGB32()


Concepts learned in Task 7:

pixels
radian
counter-clockwise
aspect ratio


Commands learned in Task 6:

FOR...NEXT
STEP
CLS
SLEEP
_DELAY
SYSTEM
DO...LOOP (and variations)
WHILE...WEND

Concepts learned in Task 6:

frame rate
controlled loops
conditional loops


Commands learned in Task 5:

TIME$
VAL()
IF...THEN
AND
END
GOTO
SELECT CASE...END SELECT
CASE
TO
IS
CASE ELSE
colon ( : )

Concepts learned in Task 5:

relational operators
functions
nesting
order of operations
Boolean
conditions
indenting
loops
labels


Commands learned in Task 4:

INPUT
DIM
REM or '
CONST

Concepts learned in Task 4:

variables
type declarations
literal strings
concatenation
integers
long integers
single precision
double precision
strings
null strings
reserved words
operators ( +, -, *, / )
declare
constant


Commands learned in Task 3:

PRINT

Concepts learned in Task 3:

execute
statement
expression
literal string
syntax error